The underlying need for Data collection is to capture quality evidence that seeks to answer all the questions that have been posed. Through data collection businesses or management can deduce quality information that is a prerequisite for making informed decisions.
To improve the quality of information, it is expedient that data is collected so that you can draw inferences and make informed decisions on what is considered factual.
At the end of this article, you would understand why picking the best data collection method is necessary for achieving your set objective.
Data collection is a methodical process of gathering and analyzing specific information to proffer solutions to relevant questions and evaluate the results. It focuses on finding out all there is to a particular subject matter. Data is collected to be further subjected to hypothesis testing which seeks to explain a phenomenon.
Hypothesis testing eliminates assumptions while making a proposition from the basis of reason.
For collectors of data, there is a range of outcomes for which the data is collected. But the key purpose for which data is collected is to put a researcher in a vantage position to make predictions about future probabilities and trends.
The core forms in which data can be collected are primary and secondary data. While the former is collected by a researcher through first-hand sources, the latter is collected by an individual other than the user.
Before broaching the subject of the various types of data collection. It is pertinent to note that data collection in itself falls under two broad categories; Primary data collection and secondary data collection.
Primary data collection by definition is the gathering of raw data collected at the source. It is a process of collecting the original data collected by a researcher for a specific research purpose. It could be further analyzed into two segments; qualitative research and quantitative data collection methods.
The qualitative research methods of data collection do not involve the collection of data that involves numbers or a need to be deduced through a mathematical calculation, rather it is based on the non-quantifiable elements like the feeling or emotion of the researcher. An example of such a method is an open-ended questionnaire.
Quantitative methods are presented in numbers and require a mathematical calculation to deduce. An example would be the use of a questionnaire with close-ended questions to arrive at figures to be calculated Mathematically. Also, methods of correlation and regression, mean, mode and median.
Secondary data collection, on the other hand, is referred to as the gathering of second-hand data collected by an individual who is not the original user. It is the process of collecting data that is already existing, be it already published books, journals, and/or online portals. In terms of ease, it is much less expensive and easier to collect.
Your choice between Primary data collection and secondary data collection depends on the nature, scope, and area of your research as well as its aims and objectives.
There are a bunch of underlying reasons for collecting data, especially for a researcher. Walking you through them, here are a few reasons;
A key reason for collecting data, be it through quantitative or qualitative methods is to ensure that the integrity of the research question is indeed maintained.
The correct use of appropriate data collection of methods reduces the likelihood of errors consistent with the results.
To minimize the risk of errors in decision-making, it is important that accurate data is collected so that the researcher doesn’t make uninformed decisions.
Data collection saves the researcher time and funds that would otherwise be misspent without a deeper understanding of the topic or subject matter.
To prove the need for a change in the norm or the introduction of new information that will be widely accepted, it is important to collect data as evidence to support these claims.
Data collection tools refer to the devices/instruments used to collect data, such as a paper questionnaire or computer-assisted interviewing system. Case Studies, Checklists, Interviews, Observation sometimes, and Surveys or Questionnaires are all tools used to collect data.
It is important to decide the tools for data collection because research is carried out in different ways and for different purposes. The objective behind data collection is to capture quality evidence that allows analysis to lead to the formulation of convincing and credible answers to the posed questions.
The objective behind data collection is to capture quality evidence that allows analysis to lead to the formulation of convincing and credible answers to the questions that have been posed – Click to Tweet
The Formplus’ online data collection tool is perfect for gathering primary data, i.e. raw data collected from the source. You can easily get data with at least three data collection methods with our online and offline data gathering tool. I.e Online Questionnaires, Focus Groups, and Reporting.
In our previous articles, we’ve explained why quantitative research methods are more effective than qualitative methods. However, with the Formplus data collection tool, you can gather all types of primary data for academic, opinion or product research.
The following are the top 7 data collection methods for Academic, Opinion-based or product research. Also discussed in detail is the nature, pros and cons of each one. At the end of this segment, you will be best informed about which method best suits your research.
An interview is a face-to-face conversation between two individuals with the sole purpose of collecting relevant information to satisfy a research purpose. Interviews are of different types namely; Structured, Semi-structured, and unstructured with each having a slight variation from the other.
For collecting data through interviews, here are a few tools you can use to easily collect data.
An audio recorder is used for recording sound on disc, tape, or film. Audio information can meet the needs of a wide range of people, as well as provide alternatives to print data collection tools.
An advantage of a digital camera is that it can be used for transmitting those images to a monitor screen when the need arises.
A camcorder is used for collecting data through interviews. It provides a combination of both an audio recorder and a video camera. The data provided is qualitative in nature and allows the respondents to answer questions asked exhaustively. If you need to collect sensitive information during an interview, a camcorder might not work for you as you would need to maintain your subject’s privacy.
Want to conduct an interview for qualitative data research or special report? Use this online interview consent form template to allow the interviewee to give their consent before you use the interview data for research or report. With premium features like e-signature, upload fields, form security, etc., Formplus Builder is the perfect tool to create your preferred online consent forms without coding experience.
This is the process of collecting data through an instrument consisting of a series of questions and prompts to receive a response from individuals it is administered to. Questionnaires are designed to collect data from a group.
For clarity, it is important to note that a questionnaire isn’t a survey, rather it forms a part of it. A survey is a process of data gathering involving a variety of data collection methods, including a questionnaire.
On a questionnaire, there are three kinds of questions used. They are; fixed-alternative, scale, and open-ended. With each of the questions tailored to the nature and scope of the research.
Formplus lets you create powerful forms to help you collect the information you need. Formplus helps you create the online forms that you like. The Formplus online questionnaire form template to get actionable trends and measurable responses. Conduct research, optimize knowledge of your brand or just get to know an audience with this form template. The form template is fast, free and fully customizable.
A paper questionnaire is a data collection tool consisting of a series of questions and/or prompts for the purpose of gathering information from respondents. Mostly designed for statistical analysis of the responses, they can also be used as a form of data collection.
By definition, data reporting is the process of gathering and submitting data to be further subjected to analysis. The key aspect of data reporting is reporting accurate data because of inaccurate data reporting leads to uninformed decision making.
Reporting tools enable you to extract and present data in charts, tables, and other visualizations so users can find useful information. You could source data for reporting from Non-Governmental Organizations (NGO) reports, newspapers, website articles, hospital records.
Contained in NGO reports is an in-depth and comprehensive report on the activities carried out by the NGO, covering areas such as business and human rights. The information contained in these reports is research-specific and forms an acceptable academic base for collecting data. NGOs often focus on development projects which are organized to promote particular causes.
Newspaper data are relatively easy to collect and are sometimes the only continuously available source of event data. Even though there is a problem of bias in newspaper data, it is still a valid tool in collecting data for Reporting.
Gathering and using data contained in website articles is also another tool for data collection. Collecting data from web articles is a quicker and less expensive data collection Two major disadvantages of using this data reporting method are biases inherent in the data collection process and possible security/confidentiality concerns.
Health care involves a diverse set of public and private data collection systems, including health surveys, administrative enrollment and billing records, and medical records, used by various entities, including hospitals, CHCs, physicians, and health plans. The data provided is clear, unbiased and accurate, but must be obtained under legal means as medical data is kept with the strictest regulations.
This is the introduction of new investigative questions in addition to/other than the ones originally used when the data was initially gathered. It involves adding measurement to a study or research. An example would be sourcing data from an archive.
The concept of Existing data means that data is collected from existing sources to investigate research questions other than those for which the data were originally gathered. Tools to collect existing data include:
This is a data collection method by which information on a phenomenon is gathered through observation. The nature of the observation could be accomplished either as a complete observer, an observer as a participant, a participant as an observer, or as a complete participant. This method is a key base for formulating a hypothesis.
Observation involves the active acquisition of information from a primary source. Observation can also involve the perception and recording of data via the use of scientific instruments. The best tools for Observation are:
The opposite of quantitative research which involves numerical-based data, this data collection method focuses more on qualitative research. It falls under the primary category for data based on the feelings and opinions of the respondents. This research involves asking open-ended questions to a group of individuals usually ranging from 6-10 people, to provide feedback.
A focus group is a data collection method that is tightly facilitated and structured around a set of questions. The purpose of the meeting is to extract from the participants’ detailed responses to these questions. The best tools for tackling Focus groups are:
This method of data collection encompasses the use of innovative methods to enhance participation to both individuals and groups. Also under the primary category, it is a combination of Interviews and Focus Groups while collecting qualitative data. This method is key when addressing sensitive subjects.
The Combination Research method involves two or more data collection methods, for instance, interviews as well as questionnaires or a combination of semi-structured telephone interviews and focus groups. The best tools for combination research are:
With Formplus, you can create your unique survey form. With options to change themes, font colour, font, font type, layout, width, and more, you can create an attractive survey form. The builder also gives you as many features as possible to choose from and you do not need to be a graphic designer to create a form.
Form Analytics, a feature in formplus helps you view the number of respondents, unique visits, total visits, abandonment rate, and average time spent before submission. This tool eliminates the need for a manual calculation of the received data and/or responses as well as the conversion rate for your poll.
Copy the link to your form and embed as an iframe which will automatically load as your website loads, or as a popup which opens once the respondent clicks on the link. Embed the link on your Twitter page to give instant access to your followers.
The geolocation feature on Formplus lets you ascertain where individual responses are coming. It utilises Google Maps to pinpoint the longitude and latitude of the respondent, to the nearest accuracy, along with the responses.
This feature helps to conserve horizontal space as it allows you to put multiple options in one field. This translates to including more information on the survey form.
Formplus gives you a free plan with basic features you can use to collect online data. Pricing plans with vast features starts at $20 monthly, with reasonable discounts for Education and Non-Profit Organizations.
2. Input your survey title and use the form builder choice options to start creating your surveys.
Use the choice option fields like single select, multiple select, checkbox, radio, and image choices to create your preferred multi-choice surveys online.
3. Do you want customers to rate any of your products or services delivery?
Use the rating to allow survey respondents rate your products or services. This is an ideal quantitative research method of collecting data.
4. Beautify your online questionnaire with Formplus Customisation features.
5. Edit your survey questionnaire settings for your specific needs
Choose where you choose to store your files and responses. Select a submission deadline, choose a timezone, limit respondents responses, enable Captcha to prevent spam and collect location data of customers.
Set an introductory message to respondents before they begin the survey, toggle the “start button” post final submission message or redirect respondents to another page when they submit their questionnaires.
Change the Email Notifications inventory and initiate an autoresponder message to all your survey questionnaire respondents. You can also transfer your forms to other users who can become form administrators.
6. Share links of your survey questionnaire page with customers.
There’s an option to copy and share the link as “Popup” or “Embed code” The data collection tool automatically creates a QR Code for Survey Questionnaire where you can download and share as appropriate.
Congratulations if you’ve made it to this stage. You can start sharing your link to your survey questionnaire with your customers.
7. View your Responses to the Survey Questionnaire
Toggle with the presentation of your summary from the options. Whether as a single, table or cards.
8. Allow Formplus Analytics to interpret your Survey Questionnaire Data
With online form builder analytics, a business can determine;
Try out Formplus today. You can start making your own surveys with the Formplus online survey builder. By applying these tips, you will definitely get the most out of your online surveys.
On the template, you can collect data to measure customer’s satisfaction over key areas like the commodity purchase and the level of service they received. It also gives insight as to which products the customer enjoyed, how often they buy such a product, and whether or not the customer is likely to recommend the product to a friend or acquaintance.
With this template, you would be able to measure, with accuracy, the ratio of male to female, age range and a number of unemployed persons in a particular country as well as obtain their personal details such as names and addresses.
Respondents are also able to state their religious and political views about the country under review.
Contained in the template for the online feedback form is the details of a product and/or service used. Identifying this product or service and documenting how long the customer has used them.
The overall satisfaction is measured as well as the delivery of the services. The likelihood that the customer also recommends said product is also measured.
The online questionnaire template houses the respondent’s data as well as educational qualification to collect information to be used for academic research.
Respondents can also provide their gender, race, a field of study as well as present living conditions as prerequisite data for the research study.
The template is a data sheet containing all the relevant information of a student. The student’s name, home address, guardians name, a record of attendance as well as performance in school is well represented on this template. This is a perfect data collection method to deploy for a school or an education organizations.
Also included is a record for interaction with others as well as a space for a short comment on the overall performance and attitude of the student.
This online interview consent form template allows interviewee sign off their consent to use the interview data for research or report for journalist. With premium features like short text fields, upload, e-signature, etc., Formplus Builder is the perfect tool to create your preferred online consent forms without coding experience.
Ans: Combination Research
The best data collection method for a researcher for gathering qualitative data which generally is data relying on the feelings, opinions and beliefs of the respondents would be Combination Research.
The reason why combination research is the best fit is that it encompasses the attributes of Interviews and Focus Groups. It is also useful when gathering data that is sensitive in nature. It can be described as all-purpose quantitative data collection method.
Above all, combination research improves the richness of data collected when compared with other data collection methods for qualitative data.
The best data collection method a researcher can employ in gathering quantitative data which takes into consideration data that can be represented in numbers and figures that can be deduced mathematically is the Questionnaire.
These can be administered to a large number of respondents, while saving cost. For quantitative data that may be bulky or voluminous in nature, the use of a Questionnaire makes such data easy to visualize and analyze.
Another key advantage of the Questionnaire is that it can be used to compare and contrast previous research work done to measure changes.
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