The underlying need for Data collection is to capture quality evidence that seeks to answer all the questions that have been posed. Through data collection businesses or management can deduce quality information that is a prerequisite for making informed decisions.

To improve the quality of information, it is expedient that data is collected so that you can draw inferences and make informed decisions on what is considered factual.

At the end of this article, you would understand why picking the best data collection method is necessary for achieving your set objective. 

Sign up on Formplus Builder to create your preferred online surveys or questionnaire for data collection. You don’t need to be tech-savvy! Start creating quality questionnaires with Formplus.

What is Data Collection?

Data collection is a methodical process of gathering and analyzing specific information to proffer solutions to relevant questions and evaluate the results. It focuses on finding out all there is to a particular subject matter. Data is collected to be further subjected to hypothesis testing which seeks to explain a phenomenon.

Hypothesis testing eliminates assumptions while making a proposition from the basis of reason.

For collectors of data, there is a range of outcomes for which the data is collected. But the key purpose for which data is collected is to put a researcher in a vantage position to make predictions about future probabilities and trends.

The core forms in which data can be collected are primary and secondary data. While the former is collected by a researcher through first-hand sources, the latter is collected by an individual other than the user. 

Types of Data Collection 

Before broaching the subject of the various types of data collection. It is pertinent to note that data collection in itself falls under two broad categories; Primary data collection and secondary data collection.

Primary Data Collection

Primary data collection by definition is the gathering of raw data collected at the source. It is a process of collecting the original data collected by a researcher for a specific research purpose. It could be further analyzed into two segments; qualitative research and quantitative data collection methods. 

  • Qualitative Research Method 

The qualitative research methods of data collection do not involve the collection of data that involves numbers or a need to be deduced through a mathematical calculation, rather it is based on the non-quantifiable elements like the feeling or emotion of the researcher. An example of such a method is an open-ended questionnaire.

  • Quantitative Method

Quantitative methods are presented in numbers and require a mathematical calculation to deduce. An example would be the use of a questionnaire with close-ended questions to arrive at figures to be calculated Mathematically. Also, methods of correlation and regression, mean, mode and median.

Read Also: 15 Reasons to Choose Quantitative over Qualitative Research

Secondary Data Collection

Secondary data collection, on the other hand, is referred to as the gathering of second-hand data collected by an individual who is not the original user. It is the process of collecting data that is already existing, be it already published books, journals, and/or online portals. In terms of ease, it is much less expensive and easier to collect.

Your choice between Primary data collection and secondary data collection depends on the nature, scope, and area of your research as well as its aims and objectives. 

Importance of Data Collection

There are a bunch of underlying reasons for collecting data, especially for a researcher. Walking you through them, here are a few reasons; 

  • Integrity of the Research

A key reason for collecting data, be it through quantitative or qualitative methods is to ensure that the integrity of the research question is indeed maintained.

  • Reduce the likelihood of errors

The correct use of appropriate data collection of methods reduces the likelihood of errors consistent with the results. 

  • Decision Making

To minimize the risk of errors in decision-making, it is important that accurate data is collected so that the researcher doesn’t make uninformed decisions. 

  • Save Cost and Time

Data collection saves the researcher time and funds that would otherwise be misspent without a deeper understanding of the topic or subject matter.

  • To support a need for a new idea, change, and/or innovation

To prove the need for a change in the norm or the introduction of new information that will be widely accepted, it is important to collect data as evidence to support these claims.

What is a Data Collection Tool?

Data collection tools refer to the devices/instruments used to collect data, such as a paper questionnaire or computer-assisted interviewing system. Case Studies, Checklists, Interviews, Observation sometimes, and Surveys or Questionnaires are all tools used to collect data.

It is important to decide on the tools for data collection because research is carried out in different ways and for different purposes. The objective behind data collection is to capture quality evidence that allows analysis to lead to the formulation of convincing and credible answers to the posed questions.

The objective behind data collection is to capture quality evidence that allows analysis to lead to the formulation of convincing and credible answers to the questions that have been posed – Click to Tweet

The Formplus online data collection tool is perfect for gathering primary data, i.e. raw data collected from the source. You can easily get data with at least three data collection methods with our online and offline data-gathering tool. I.e Online Questionnaires, Focus Groups, and Reporting. 

In our previous articles, we’ve explained why quantitative research methods are more effective than qualitative methods. However, with the Formplus data collection tool, you can gather all types of primary data for academic, opinion or product research.

Top Data Collection Methods and Tools for Academic, Opinion, or Product Research

The following are the top 7 data collection methods for Academic, Opinion-based, or product research. Also discussed in detail are the nature, pros, and cons of each one. At the end of this segment, you will be best informed about which method best suits your research. 


An interview is a face-to-face conversation between two individuals with the sole purpose of collecting relevant information to satisfy a research purpose. Interviews are of different types namely; Structured, Semi-structured, and unstructured with each having a slight variation from the other.

Use this interview consent form template to let an interviewee give you consent to use data gotten from your interviews for investigative research purposes.

  • Structured Interviews – Simply put, it is a verbally administered questionnaire. In terms of depth, it is surface level and is usually completed within a short period. For speed and efficiency, it is highly recommendable, but it lacks depth.
  • Semi-structured InterviewsIn this method, there subsist several key questions which cover the scope of the areas to be explored. It allows a little more leeway for the researcher to explore the subject matter.
  • Unstructured Interviews It is an in-depth interview that allows the researcher to collect a wide range of information with a purpose. An advantage of this method is the freedom it gives a researcher to combine structure with flexibility even though it is more time-consuming.


  • In-depth information
  • Freedom of flexibility
  • Accurate data.


  • Time-consuming
  • Expensive to collect.

What are The Best Data Collection Tools for Interviews? 

For collecting data through interviews, here are a few tools you can use to easily collect data.

  • Audio Recorder

An audio recorder is used for recording sound on disc, tape, or film. Audio information can meet the needs of a wide range of people, as well as provide alternatives to print data collection tools.

  • Digital Camera

An advantage of a digital camera is that it can be used for transmitting those images to a monitor screen when the need arises.

  • Camcorder

A camcorder is used for collecting data through interviews. It provides a combination of both an audio recorder and a video camera. The data provided is qualitative in nature and allows the respondents to answer questions asked exhaustively. If you need to collect sensitive information during an interview, a camcorder might not work for you as you would need to maintain your subject’s privacy.

Want to conduct an interview for qualitative data research or a special report? Use this online interview consent form template to allow the interviewee to give their consent before you use the interview data for research or report. With premium features like e-signature, upload fields, form security, etc., Formplus Builder is the perfect tool to create your preferred online consent forms without coding experience. 


This is the process of collecting data through an instrument consisting of a series of questions and prompts to receive a response from the individuals it is administered to. Questionnaires are designed to collect data from a group. 

For clarity, it is important to note that a questionnaire isn’t a survey, rather it forms a part of it. A survey is a process of data gathering involving a variety of data collection methods, including a questionnaire.

On a questionnaire, there are three kinds of questions used. They are; fixed-alternative, scale, and open-ended. With each of the questions tailored to the nature and scope of the research.


  • Can be administered in large numbers and is cost-effective.
  • It can be used to compare and contrast previous research to measure change.
  • Easy to visualize and analyze.
  • Questionnaires offer actionable data.
  • Respondent identity is protected.
  • Questionnaires can cover all areas of a topic.
  • Relatively inexpensive.


  • Answers may be dishonest or the respondents lose interest midway.
  • Questionnaires can’t produce qualitative data.
  • Questions might be left unanswered.
  • Respondents may have a hidden agenda.
  • Not all questions can be analyzed easily.

What are the Best Data Collection Tools for Questionnaires? 

Formplus lets you create powerful forms to help you collect the information you need. Formplus helps you create the online forms that you like. The Formplus online questionnaire form template to get actionable trends and measurable responses. Conduct research, optimize knowledge of your brand or just get to know an audience with this form template. The form template is fast, free and fully customizable.

  • Paper Questionnaire

A paper questionnaire is a data collection tool consisting of a series of questions and/or prompts for the purpose of gathering information from respondents. Mostly designed for statistical analysis of the responses, they can also be used as a form of data collection.

Sign up on Formplus Builder to create your preferred online surveys or questionnaire for data collection. You don’t need to be tech-savvy! Start creating quality questionnaires with Formplus.


By definition, data reporting is the process of gathering and submitting data to be further subjected to analysis. The key aspect of data reporting is reporting accurate data because inaccurate data reporting leads to uninformed decision-making.


  • Informed decision-making.
  • Easily accessible.


  • Self-reported answers may be exaggerated.
  • The results may be affected by bias.
  • Respondents may be too shy to give out all the details.
  • Inaccurate reports will lead to uninformed decisions.

What are the Best Data Collection Tools for Reporting?

Reporting tools enable you to extract and present data in charts, tables, and other visualizations so users can find useful information. You could source data for reporting from Non-Governmental Organizations (NGO) reports, newspapers, website articles, and hospital records.

  • NGO Reports

Contained in NGO report is an in-depth and comprehensive report on the activities carried out by the NGO, covering areas such as business and human rights. The information contained in these reports is research-specific and forms an acceptable academic base for collecting data. NGOs often focus on development projects which are organized to promote particular causes.

  • Newspapers

Newspaper data are relatively easy to collect and are sometimes the only continuously available source of event data. Even though there is a problem of bias in newspaper data, it is still a valid tool in collecting data for Reporting.

  • Website Articles

Gathering and using data contained in website articles is also another tool for data collection. Collecting data from web articles is a quicker and less expensive data collection Two major disadvantages of using this data reporting method are biases inherent in the data collection process and possible security/confidentiality concerns.

  • Hospital Care records

Health care involves a diverse set of public and private data collection systems, including health surveys, administrative enrollment and billing records, and medical records, used by various entities, including hospitals, CHCs, physicians, and health plans. The data provided is clear, unbiased and accurate, but must be obtained under legal means as medical data is kept with the strictest regulations.


This is the introduction of new investigative questions in addition to/other than the ones originally used when the data was initially gathered. It involves adding measurement to a study or research. An example would be sourcing data from an archive.


  • Accuracy is very high.
  • Easily accessible information.


  • Problems with evaluation.
  • Difficulty in understanding.

What are the Best Data Collection Tools for Existing Data?

The concept of Existing data means that data is collected from existing sources to investigate research questions other than those for which the data were originally gathered. Tools to collect existing data include: 

  • Research Journals – Unlike newspapers and magazines, research journals are intended for an academic or technical audience, not general readers. A journal is a scholarly publication containing articles written by researchers, professors, and other experts.
  • Surveys – A survey is a data collection tool for gathering information from a sample population, with the intention of generalizing the results to a larger population. Surveys have a variety of purposes and can be carried out in many ways depending on the objectives to be achieved.

This is a data collection method by which information on a phenomenon is gathered through observation. The nature of the observation could be accomplished either as a complete observer, an observer as a participant, a participant as an observer, or as a complete participant. This method is a key base for formulating a hypothesis.


  • Easy to administer.
  • There subsists a greater accuracy with results.
  • It is a universally accepted practice.
  • It diffuses the situation of the unwillingness of respondents to administer a report.
  • It is appropriate for certain situations.


  • Some phenomena aren’t open to observation.
  • It cannot be relied upon.
  • Bias may arise.
  • It is expensive to administer.
  • Its validity cannot be predicted accurately.

What are the Best Data Collection Tools for Observation?

Observation involves the active acquisition of information from a primary source. Observation can also involve the perception and recording of data via the use of scientific instruments. The best tools for Observation are:

  • Checklists – state-specific criteria, that allow users to gather information and make judgments about what they should know in relation to the outcomes. They offer systematic ways of collecting data about specific behaviors, knowledge, and skills.
  • Direct observation – This is an observational study method of collecting evaluative information. The evaluator watches the subject in his or her usual environment without altering that environment.


The opposite of quantitative research which involves numerical-based data, this data collection method focuses more on qualitative research. It falls under the primary category of data based on the feelings and opinions of the respondents. This research involves asking open-ended questions to a group of individuals usually ranging from 6-10 people, to provide feedback.


  • Information obtained is usually very detailed.
  • Cost-effective when compared to one-on-one interviews.
  • It reflects speed and efficiency in the supply of results.


  • Lacking depth in covering the nitty-gritty of a subject matter.
  • Bias might still be evident.
  • Requires interviewer training
  • The researcher has very little control over the outcome.
  • A few vocal voices can drown out the rest.
  • Difficulty in assembling an all-inclusive group.

What are the Best Data Collection Tools for Focus Groups?

A focus group is a data collection method that is tightly facilitated and structured around a set of questions. The purpose of the meeting is to extract from the participants’ detailed responses to these questions. The best tools for tackling Focus groups are: 

  • Two-Way – One group watches another group answer the questions posed by the moderator. After listening to what the other group has to offer, the group that listens is able to facilitate more discussion and could potentially draw different conclusions.
  • Dueling-Moderator – There are two moderators who play the devil’s advocate. The main positive of the dueling-moderator focus group is to facilitate new ideas by introducing new ways of thinking and varying viewpoints.

This method of data collection encompasses the use of innovative methods to enhance participation in both individuals and groups. Also under the primary category, it is a combination of Interviews and Focus Groups while collecting qualitative data. This method is key when addressing sensitive subjects. 


  • Encourage participants to give responses.
  • It stimulates a deeper connection between participants.
  • The relative anonymity of respondents increases participation.
  • It improves the richness of the data collected.


  • It costs the most out of all the top 7.
  • It’s the most time-consuming.

What are the Best Data Collection Tools for Combination Research? 

The Combination Research method involves two or more data collection methods, for instance, interviews as well as questionnaires or a combination of semi-structured telephone interviews and focus groups. The best tools for combination research are: 

  • Online Survey – The two tools combined here are online interviews and the use of questionnaires. This is a questionnaire that the target audience can complete over the Internet. It is timely, effective, and efficient. Especially since the data to be collected is quantitative in nature.
  • Dual-Moderator – The two tools combined here are focus groups and structured questionnaires. The structured questionnaires give a direction as to where the research is headed while two moderators take charge of the proceedings. Whilst one ensures the focus group session progresses smoothly, the other makes sure that the topics in question are all covered. Dual-moderator focus groups typically result in a more productive session and essentially lead to an optimum collection of data.

Why Formplus is the Best Data Collection Tool

  • Vast Options for Form Customization 

With Formplus, you can create your unique survey form. With options to change themes, font color, font, font type, layout, width, and more, you can create an attractive survey form. The builder also gives you as many features as possible to choose from and you do not need to be a graphic designer to create a form.

  • Extensive Analytics

Form Analytics, a feature in formplus helps you view the number of respondents, unique visits, total visits, abandonment rate, and average time spent before submission. This tool eliminates the need for a manual calculation of the received data and/or responses as well as the conversion rate for your poll.

  • Embed Survey Form on Your Website

Copy the link to your form and embed it as an iframe which will automatically load as your website loads, or as a popup that opens once the respondent clicks on the link. Embed the link on your Twitter page to give instant access to your followers.

  • Geolocation Support

The geolocation feature on Formplus lets you ascertain where individual responses are coming. It utilises Google Maps to pinpoint the longitude and latitude of the respondent, to the nearest accuracy, along with the responses.

  • Multi-Select feature

This feature helps to conserve horizontal space as it allows you to put multiple options in one field. This translates to including more information on the survey form. 

Read Also: 10 Reasons to Use Formplus for Online Data Collection

How to Use Formplus to collect online data in 7 simple steps. 

  1. Register or sign up on Formplus builder: Start creating your preferred questionnaire or survey by signing up with either your Google, Facebook, or Email account.

Formplus gives you a free plan with basic features you can use to collect online data. Pricing plans with vast features starts at $20 monthly, with reasonable discounts for Education and Non-Profit Organizations. 

2. Input your survey title and use the form builder choice options to start creating your surveys. 

Use the choice option fields like single select, multiple select, checkbox, radio, and image choices to create your preferred multi-choice surveys online.

3. Do you want customers to rate any of your products or services delivery? 

Use the rating to allow survey respondents rate your products or services. This is an ideal quantitative research method of collecting data. 

4. Beautify your online questionnaire with Formplus Customisation features.

You can; 

  • Change the theme color
  • Add your brand’s logo and image to the forms
  • Change the form width and layout
  • Edit the submission button if you want
  • Change text font color and sizes
  • Do you have already made custom CSS to beautify your questionnaire? If yes, just copy and paste it to the CSS option.

5. Edit your survey questionnaire settings for your specific needs

Choose where you choose to store your files and responses. Select a submission deadline, choose a timezone, limit respondents’ responses, enable Captcha to prevent spam, and collect location data of customers.

Set an introductory message to respondents before they begin the survey, toggle the “start button” post final submission message or redirect respondents to another page when they submit their questionnaires. 

Change the Email Notifications inventory and initiate an autoresponder message to all your survey questionnaire respondents. You can also transfer your forms to other users who can become form administrators.

6. Share links to your survey questionnaire page with customers.

There’s an option to copy and share the link as “Popup” or “Embed code” The data collection tool automatically creates a QR Code for Survey Questionnaire which you can download and share as appropriate. 

Congratulations if you’ve made it to this stage. You can start sharing the link to your survey questionnaire with your customers.

7. View your Responses to the Survey Questionnaire

Toggle with the presentation of your summary from the options. Whether as a single, table or cards.

8. Allow Formplus Analytics to interpret your Survey Questionnaire Data


  With online form builder analytics, a business can determine;

  • The number of times the survey questionnaire was filled
  • The number of customers reached
  • Abandonment Rate: The rate at which customers exit the form without submitting it.
  • Conversion Rate: The percentage of customers who completed the online form
  • Average time spent per visit
  • Location of customers/respondents.
  • The type of device used by the customer to complete the survey questionnaire.

7 Tips to Create The Best Surveys For Data Collections

  •  Define the goal of your survey – Once the goal of your survey is outlined, it will aid in deciding which questions are the top priority. A clear attainable goal would, for example, mirror a clear reason as to why something is happening. e.g. “The goal of this survey is to understand why Employees are leaving an establishment.”
  • Use close-ended clearly defined questions – Avoid open-ended questions and ensure you’re not suggesting your preferred answer to the respondent. If possible offer a range of answers with choice options and ratings.
  • Survey outlook should be attractive and Inviting – An attractive-looking survey encourages a higher number of recipients to respond to the survey. Check out Formplus Builder for colorful options to integrate into your survey design. You could use images and videos to keep participants glued to their screens.
  •  Assure Respondents about the safety of their data – You want your respondents to be assured whilst disclosing details of their personal information to you. It’s your duty to inform the respondents that the data they provide is confidential and only collected for the purpose of research.
  • Ensure your survey can be completed in record time – Ideally, in a typical survey, users should be able to respond in 100 seconds. It is pertinent to note that they, the respondents, are doing you a favor. Don’t stress them. Be brief and get straight to the point.
  • Do a trial survey – Preview your survey before sending out your surveys to the intended respondents. Make a trial version which you’ll send to a few individuals. Based on their responses, you can draw inferences and decide whether or not your survey is ready for the big time.
  • Attach a reward upon completion for users – Give your respondents something to look forward to at the end of the survey. Think of it as a penny for their troubles. It could well be the encouragement they need to not abandon the survey midway.

Try out Formplus today. You can start making your own surveys with the Formplus online survey builder. By applying these tips, you will definitely get the most out of your online surveys.

Top Survey Templates For Data Collection 

On the template, you can collect data to measure customer satisfaction over key areas like the commodity purchase and the level of service they received. It also gives insight as to which products the customer enjoyed, how often they buy such a product, and whether or not the customer is likely to recommend the product to a friend or acquaintance. 

With this template, you would be able to measure, with accuracy, the ratio of male to female, age range, and the number of unemployed persons in a particular country as well as obtain their personal details such as names and addresses.

Respondents are also able to state their religious and political views about the country under review.

Contained in the template for the online feedback form is the details of a product and/or service used. Identifying this product or service and documenting how long the customer has used them.

The overall satisfaction is measured as well as the delivery of the services. The likelihood that the customer also recommends said product is also measured.

The online questionnaire template houses the respondent’s data as well as educational qualifications to collect information to be used for academic research.

Respondents can also provide their gender, race, and field of study as well as present living conditions as prerequisite data for the research study.

The template is a data sheet containing all the relevant information of a student. The student’s name, home address, guardian’s name, record of attendance as well as performance in school is well represented on this template. This is a perfect data collection method to deploy for a school or an education organization.

Also included is a record for interaction with others as well as a space for a short comment on the overall performance and attitude of the student. 

This online interview consent form template allows the interviewee to sign off their consent to use the interview data for research or report to journalists. With premium features like short text fields, upload, e-signature, etc., Formplus Builder is the perfect tool to create your preferred online consent forms without coding experience.

What is the Best Data Collection Method for Qualitative Data?

Answer: Combination Research

The best data collection method for a researcher for gathering qualitative data which generally is data relying on the feelings, opinions, and beliefs of the respondents would be Combination Research.

The reason why combination research is the best fit is that it encompasses the attributes of Interviews and Focus Groups. It is also useful when gathering data that is sensitive in nature. It can be described as an all-purpose quantitative data collection method.

Above all, combination research improves the richness of data collected when compared with other data collection methods for qualitative data.

What is the Best Data Collection Method for Quantitative Research Data?

Ans: Questionnaire

The best data collection method a researcher can employ in gathering quantitative data which takes into consideration data that can be represented in numbers and figures that can be deduced mathematically is the Questionnaire.

These can be administered to a large number of respondents while saving costs. For quantitative data that may be bulky or voluminous in nature, the use of a Questionnaire makes such data easy to visualize and analyze.

Another key advantage of the Questionnaire is that it can be used to compare and contrast previous research work done to measure changes.

Technology-Enabled Data Collection Methods

There are so many diverse methods available now in the world because technology has revolutionized the way data is being collected. It has provided efficient and innovative methods that anyone, especially researchers and organizations. Below are some technology-enabled data collection methods:

  1. Online Surveys: Online surveys have gained popularity due to their ease of use and wide reach. You can distribute them through email, social media, or embed them on websites. Online surveys allow you to quickly complete data collection, automated data capture, and real-time analysis. Online surveys also offer features like skip logic, validation checks, and multimedia integration.
  2. Mobile Surveys: With the widespread use of smartphones, mobile surveys’ popularity is also on the rise. Mobile surveys leverage the capabilities of mobile devices, and this allows respondents to participate at their convenience. This includes multimedia elements, location-based information, and real-time feedback. Mobile surveys are the best for capturing in-the-moment experiences or opinions.
  3. Social Media Listening: Social media platforms are a good source of unstructured data that you can analyze to gain insights into customer sentiment and trends. Social media listening involves monitoring and analyzing social media conversations, mentions, and hashtags to understand public opinion, identify emerging topics, and assess brand reputation.
  4. Wearable Devices and Sensors: You can embed wearable devices, such as fitness trackers or smartwatches, and sensors in everyday objects to capture continuous data on various physiological and environmental variables. This data can provide you with insights into health behaviors, activity patterns, sleep quality, and environmental conditions, among others.
  5. Big Data Analytics: Big data analytics leverages large volumes of structured and unstructured data from various sources, such as transaction records, social media, and internet browsing. Advanced analytics techniques, like machine learning and natural language processing, can extract meaningful insights and patterns from this data, enabling organizations to make data-driven decisions.

Read Also: How Technology is Revolutionizing Data Collection

Faulty Data Collection Practices – Common Mistakes & Sources of Error

While technology-enabled data collection methods offer numerous advantages, there are some pitfalls and sources of error that you should be aware of. Here are some common mistakes and sources of error in data collection:

  1. Population Specification Error: Population specification error occurs when the target population is not clearly defined or misidentified. This error leads to a mismatch between the research objectives and the actual population being studied, resulting in biased or inaccurate findings.
  2. Sample Frame Error: Sample frame error occurs when the sampling frame, the list or source from which the sample is drawn, does not adequately represent the target population. This error can introduce selection bias and affect the generalizability of the findings.
  3. Selection Error: Selection error occurs when the process of selecting participants or units for the study introduces bias. It can happen due to nonrandom sampling methods, inadequate sampling techniques, or self-selection bias. Selection error compromises the representativeness of the sample and affects the validity of the results.
  4. Nonresponse Error: Nonresponse error occurs when selected participants choose not to participate or fail to respond to the data collection effort. Nonresponse bias can result in an unrepresentative sample if those who choose not to respond differ systematically from those who do respond. Efforts should be made to mitigate nonresponse and encourage participation to minimize this error.
  5. Measurement Error: Measurement error arises from inaccuracies or inconsistencies in the measurement process. It can happen due to poorly designed survey instruments, ambiguous questions, respondent bias, or errors in data entry or coding. Measurement errors can lead to distorted or unreliable data, affecting the validity and reliability of the findings.

In order to mitigate these errors and ensure high-quality data collection, you should carefully plan your data collection procedures, and validate measurement tools. You should also use appropriate sampling techniques, employ randomization where possible, and minimize nonresponse through effective communication and incentives. Ensure you conduct regular checks and implement validation processes, and data cleaning procedures to identify and rectify errors during data analysis.


Best Practices for Data Collection

  1. Clearly Define Objectives: Clearly define the research objectives and questions to guide the data collection process. This helps ensure that the collected data aligns with the research goals and provides relevant insights.
  2. Plan Ahead: Develop a detailed data collection plan that includes the timeline, resources needed, and specific procedures to follow. This helps maintain consistency and efficiency throughout the data collection process.
  3. Choose the Right Method: Select data collection methods that are appropriate for the research objectives and target population. Consider factors such as feasibility, cost-effectiveness, and the ability to capture the required data accurately.
  4. Pilot Test: Before full-scale data collection, conduct a pilot test to identify any issues with the data collection instruments or procedures. This allows for refinement and improvement before data collection with the actual sample.
  5. Train Data Collectors: If data collection involves human interaction, ensure that data collectors are properly trained on the data collection protocols, instruments, and ethical considerations. Consistent training helps minimize errors and maintain data quality.
  6. Maintain Consistency: Follow standardized procedures throughout the data collection process to ensure consistency across data collectors and time. This includes using consistent measurement scales, instructions, and data recording methods.
  7. Minimize Bias: Be aware of potential sources of bias in data collection and take steps to minimize their impact. Use randomization techniques, employ diverse data collectors, and implement strategies to mitigate response biases.
  8. Ensure Data Quality: Implement quality control measures to ensure the accuracy, completeness, and reliability of the collected data. Conduct regular checks for data entry errors, inconsistencies, and missing values.
  9. Maintain Data Confidentiality: Protect the privacy and confidentiality of participants’ data by implementing appropriate security measures. Ensure compliance with data protection regulations and obtain informed consent from participants.
  10. Document the Process: Keep detailed documentation of the data collection process, including any deviations from the original plan, challenges encountered, and decisions made. This documentation facilitates transparency, replicability, and future analysis.


FAQs about Data Collection

  1. What are secondary sources of data collection? Secondary sources of data collection are defined as the data that has been previously gathered and is available for your use as a researcher. These sources can include published research papers, government reports, statistical databases, and other existing datasets.
  2. What are the primary sources of data collection? Primary sources of data collection involve collecting data directly from the original source also known as the firsthand sources. You can do this through surveys, interviews, observations, experiments, or other direct interactions with individuals or subjects of study.
  3. How many types of data are there? There are two main types of data: qualitative and quantitative. Qualitative data is non-numeric and it includes information in the form of words, images, or descriptions. Quantitative data, on the other hand, is numeric and you can measure and analyze it statistically.

Sign up on Formplus Builder to create your preferred online surveys or questionnaire for data collection. You don’t need to be tech-savvy!

  • busayo.longe
  • on 29 min read


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