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Think of appendices like bonus levels on your favorite video game. They are not a major part of the game, but they boost your points and they make the game worthwhile. 

Appendix are important facts, calculations, or data that don’t fit into the main body of your research paper. Having an appendix gives your research paper more details, making it easier for your readers to understand your main ideas.

Let’s dive into how to create an appendix and its best practices.

Understanding the Purpose of an Appendix

If you’re looking to add some extra depth to your research, appendices are a great way to do it.  They allow you to include extremely useful information that doesn’t fit neatly into the main body of your research paper, such as huge raw data, multiple charts, or very long explanations.

Think of your appendix as a treasure chest with different compartments. You can include different information including, extra data, surveys, graphs, or even detailed explanations of your methods. You can fit anything too big or detailed for the main paper in the appendix.

Planning Your Appendix

Before you dive into making your appendix, it’s a good idea to plan things out; think of it as drawing a map before going on an adventure. 

You want your appendix to be organized and provide more context to your research. Not planning it will make the process time-consuming and make the appendix confusing to people reading your research paper.

How to Decide What to Include in Your Research Paper

You have to sort through the content that you will include in your appendix. Think of what your readers need to know to understand your key points. Anything that’s overly detailed, off-topic, or clutters up your paper is a good candidate for your appendix.

Tips for Organizing Your Appendix

Once you’ve figured out what to put in your appendix, it’s time to organize it. Your appendix is a place to add extra information, but it shouldn’t be cluttered or confusing to your readers. Instead, it should make your research paper easier to understand.

Use clear headings, labels, and even page numbers to help your readers find the information they need in the appendix. This way, it’s not a jumbled mess, but a well-organized part of your research paper

Formatting Guidelines

Yes, your appendix must be formatted. Most of the time, you’ll want to keep the font and margin sizes consistent with your main paper. 

However, some universities and journals may have specific guidelines for appendix formatting. Verify if your institution has special guidelines, if they do, follow them, if they don’t use the same format as your main text.

Here’s a typical breakdown of how to format your appendix:

(1) Labeling and Titling 

If you have different types of information in your appendix, use letters to label them, such as “Appendix A” and “Appendix B”. Then, give each appendix a title that explains the information inside it. 

For example, if the first section of your appendix contains raw survey data, you could call it “Appendix A (Survey Data of People Living with Diabetes Under 18 in Texas)”. If the second section of your appendix contains charts, you could call it “Appendix B (The Effect of Sugar Tax in Curbing Diabetes in Children and Young Adults)”.

(2) Numbering Tables, Figures, and More 

If you have tables, figures, or other things in your appendix, number them like a list. For example, “Table A1,” “Figure A1,” and more. This numbering helps your readers know what they’re looking at, sort of like chapters in a book.

Creating Tables and Figures

Using tables and figures helps you organize your data neatly in your appendix. Here’s a step-by-step guide to creating tables and figures in your appendix:

Choose the Right Format for Your Appendix Data

Before creating tables or figures, you need to pick the right format to display the information. Think about what makes your data most clear and understandable. 

For example, a table is better for detailed numbers, while a graph is great for showing trends. The right format makes your information easy to grasp and makes your paper look organized.

How to Create Tables in Your Appendix

You can use a spreadsheet program (like Excel or Google Sheets) to create tables to arrange information neatly. Make sure to give your table a clear title so readers know what it’s about.

Here’s a step-by-step guide to creating tables with a spreadsheet program:

  • Open Google Sheets/Excel: Access Google Sheets or Excel through the web or download the app
  • Open a New Spreadsheet or Existing File: Create a new spreadsheet or open an existing one where you want to insert a table.
  • Select Data: Click and drag to select the data you want to include in the table.
  • Insert Table: Once your data is selected, go to the “Insert” menu, then select “Table.
  • Create Table: A dialog box will appear, confirming the selected data range. Make sure the “Use the first row as headers” option is checked if your data has headers. Click “Insert.”
  • Customize Your Table: After inserting the table, you can customize it by adjusting the style, format, and other table properties using the “Table” menu in Google Sheets or Excel.


You can use software like PowerPoint, Google Slides, or graphic design tools to create them. If you have a chart or graph, make sure it’s easy to understand and add a title or labels to explain it. 

You can use the editing tools for images to change the size and other aspects of the image.

Including Raw Data

The major reasons for including raw data in your appendix are transparency and credibility. Raw data is like your research recipe; it shows exactly what you worked with to arrive at your conclusions.

Raw data also provides enough information to guide researchers in replicating your study or getting a deeper understanding of your research.

Formatting and Presenting Raw Data 

Formatting your raw data makes it easy for anyone to understand. You can use tables, charts, or even lists to display your data. For example, if you did a survey, you could put the survey responses in a table with clear headings.

When presenting your raw data, clear organization is your best friend. Use headings, labels, and consistent formatting to help your readers find and understand the data. This keeps your appendix from becoming a confusing puzzle.

Citing Your Appendix

Referencing your appendix in the main text gives readers a full picture of your research while they’re reading- They don’t have to wait until the end to figure out important details of your research.

Unlike actual references and citations, citing your appendix is a very straightforward process. You can simply say, “See Appendix A for more details.”

In-Text Citations for Appendix Content

If you would like to cite information in your appendix, you usually mention the author, year, and what exactly you’re citing. This allows you to give credit to the original creator of the content, so your readers know where it came from.

For instance, if you included a chart from a book in your appendix, you’d say something like (Author, Year, p. X). Keep in mind that there are different citation styles (APA, MLA, Chicago, and others), so your appendix may look a little different.

Proofreading and Editing

Proofreading and editing your appendix is just as important as proofreading and editing the main body of your paper. A poorly written or formatted appendix can leave a negative impression on your reader and detract from the overall quality of your work. 

Make sure that your appendix is consistent with the main text of your paper in terms of style and tone unless otherwise stated by your institution. Use the same font, font size, and line spacing in the appendix as you do in the main body of your paper. 

Your appendix should also be free of errors in grammar, spelling, punctuation, and formatting.

Tips for Checking for Errors in Formatting, Labeling, and Content

Here are some tips for checking for errors in formatting, labeling, and content in your appendix:

  • Formatting: Make sure that all of the elements in your appendix are formatted correctly, including tables, figures, and equations. Check the margins, line spacing, and font size to make sure that they are consistent with the rest of your paper.
  • Labeling: All of the tables, figures, and equations in your appendix should be labeled clearly and consistently. Use a consistent numbering system and make sure that the labels match the references in the main body of your paper.
  • Content: Proofread your appendix carefully to catch any errors in grammar, spelling, punctuation, and content. You can use grammar editing tools such as Grammarly to help you automatically detect errors in your context.

Appendix Checklist

Having an appendix checklist guarantees a well-organized appendix and helps you spot and correct any overlooked mistakes.

Here’s a checklist of key points to review before finalizing your appendix:

  • Is all of the information in the appendix relevant and necessary?
  • Is the appendix well-organized and easy to understand?
  • Are all the tables, numbers, and equations clearly labeled?
  • Is the appendix formatted correctly and consistently with the main body of the paper?
  • Is the appendix free of errors in grammar, spelling, punctuation, and content?

Sample Appendix

We have discussed what you should include in your appendix and how to organize it. Let’s take a look at what a well-formatted appendix looks like:

Appendix A. (Raw Data of Class Scores)

The following table shows the raw data collected for the study.

Participant Age Gender Score
1 22 Male 88
2 28 Female 78
3 21 Male 72
4 25 Female 90
5 27 Male 91

Table A1

How the Sample Appendix Adheres to Best Practices

  • The appendix is labeled clearly and concisely as “Appendix A. (Raw Data of Class Score).”
  • The appendix begins on a new page.
  • The appendix is formatted consistently with the rest of the paper, using the same font, font size, and line spacing.
  • The table in the appendix is labeled clearly and concisely as “Table A1.”
  • The table is formatted correctly, with consistent column widths and alignment.
  • The table includes all of the necessary information, including the participant number, age, gender, and score.
  • The appendix is free of grammar, spelling, and punctuation errors.


Having an appendix easily makes your research paper impressive to reviewers, and increases your likelihood of achieving high grades or journal publication.  It also makes it easier for other researchers to replicate your research, allowing you to make a significant contribution to your research field.

Ensure to use the best practices in this guide to create a well-structured and relevant appendix. Also, use the checklist provided in this article to help you carefully review your appendix before submitting it.

  • Moradeke Owa
  • on 8 min read


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